• Deborah Kade

Bern, Switzerland

It is raining again today. There is always Bern to visit. There are arcades to walk under to protect you. What is the saying: if you take your umbrella, it will not rain and if you forget your umbrella, it will rain. Well... it was raining in Interlaken and it stopped raining in Bern. The sun even came out when I walked to the Bear Park.

Bern, the capital city of Switzerland, is built around a crook in the Aare River. It traces its origins back to the 12th century, with medieval architecture preserved in the Altstadt (Old Town). The Swiss Parliament and diplomats meet in the Neo-Renaissance Bundeshaus (Federal Palace). The Französische Kirche (French Church) and the nearby medieval tower known as the Zytglogge both date to the 13th century.

The medieval air of this city with its many fountains, sandstone facades, narrow streets and historic towers is quite unique. The elevated Rose Garden above the Bear Park and the platform of the 101-meter-high cathedral tower offer the best views of the old town round which the River Aare flows. The former entrenchments and bastions drop down steeply to the river. The boutiques, bars and cabaret stages of the Old Town, some of which are located in vaulted cellars, and the small street cafes attract locals as well as a lot of tourists. Although Bern has a very good public transport network it is best to explore the city center on foot. When you walk on all those cobblestones, taking the bus is often a great idea, though.

This is my favorite fountain. How many parents have said: "If you don't behave, the ogre will bite off your head." It is good I don't have children. I probably would take them here and say that!!!

Bern is the seat of Switzerland's government. The Houses of Parliament (Bundeshaus) rise above the city just a stone's throw away from the railway station. The doors to the Houses of Parliament are open to visitors most of the time, and if you're lucky you might even bump into a member of parliament in the streets of the city. Unfortunately, they are in session in September so the tours are stopped. In summer, the River Aare provides an opportunity for the ultimate bathing experience; very good, experienced swimmers allow themselves to drift along in the clean Aare while enjoying a view of the Houses of Parliament. The Botanical Gardens are also located along the river, as is the Dählhölzli Zoo and the old Matte district. I am sure when the temperatures were in the 80"s last week, many people floated along with the current. Bern and bears, the cities heraldic beast, are inseparable.

In the squares of the city center, colorful weekly markets present their wares.

The Bern Minster (German: Berner Münster) is a Swiss Reformed cathedral, (or minster) in the old city of Bern, Switzerland. Built in the Gothic style, its construction started in 1421. Its tower, with a height of 100.6 m (330 ft), was only completed in 1893. It is the tallest cathedral in Switzerland and is a Cultural Property of National Significance. (I found out about this. If there is ever a war, places with these designations can not be destroyed).

The Münster of Bern is located on the southern side of the Aare peninsula. The cathedral is oriented east and west like the rest of the Old City of Bern. To the north, Münstergasse runs along the side of the building. The west façade of the Münster dominates Münsterplatz. On the south side of the cathedral is the Münsterplattform.

It is a three nave basilica without a transept. The entire cathedral is 84.2 meters (276 ft) long and 33.68 m (110.5 ft) wide. The central nave is 39.37 m (129.2 ft) long by 11.10 m (36.4 ft) wide and is 20.70 m (67.9 ft) high. The two side naves are very similar in dimensions, the north nave is 52.50 m (172.2 ft) long, while the southern one is slightly longer at 52.72 m (173.0 ft). They are both 6.45 m (21.2 ft) wide and 10.40 m (34.1 ft) high. The altar house and choir together are 25.20 m (82.7 ft) long, 10.92 m (35.8 ft) wide and 19.40 m (63.6 ft) high. The cathedral has a single tower in the west, which is 100.60 m (330.1 ft) high. Below the tower, there is a 10.15 m (33.3 ft) long by 10.46 m (34.3 ft) wide, tower hall.

There are a total of ten bays in the building. The central nave has five of these bays. Each of the side naves has two bays, with side chapels built against the exterior walls. The last bay is within the choir.

The central nave walls are supported by fourteen flying buttresses. Each buttress starts at a decorated column which rises above the roof of the side naves and side chapels. The buttresses rise at an angle of 43° 30’. The lower side of the buttresses are decorated with egg-shaped cut outs, with vesica piscis and spandrel designs.

The majority of the building is built from local sandstone. The vaults are built of brick. In the 18th Century, limestone sheathing was added to the pillars. Most of the sandstone came from a quarry at Ostermundingen. Additional material came from three other quarries, each with differing color and quality. The various stone types were used more or less randomly throughout the entire building. The pillar bases, capitals, windows and sculptures are all from the highest quality, blue sandstone from the Gurten quarry, south of Bern. During reconstruction projects in the 19th and 20th Centuries, several other sandstone types were used.

The three west entrances of the cathedral are located at the back of three large portals. Each of the portals is a different height and differently shaped and decorated. The central portal is decorated with a series of statues that represent the Last Judgment in Christian theology.

The bell tower grew in several stages. The lower, rectangular tower was the original tower. The octagonal upper tower was added in the 19th Century. The lower tower is flanked by two round towers and eight pillars. To the north and south, it is supported by buttresses that rise above the northern and southern main portals. The west face of the tower rises above a gallery above the central, west portal. The east face is supported by the central nave. The decoration on the western face of the tower has changed several times over the centuries. The lower, western window is quite short but wide.

The upper section of the rectangular tower rises above a second gallery. It has a 12 m (39 ft) high, but narrow window directly above the gallery. The decorations of this section are the work of two master stonemasons, Erhart Küng (de) and Burkhart Engelberg (de) This section shows much less variation in the design as it was built completely under the direction of these two men.

The original tower was capped with a pyramidal roof, elements of which still exist.

The two small, stairway towers were built as part of the tower, but were completely rebuilt in the 17th and 18th Centuries.

The lower octagonal tower was built in the 16th Century. It has eight, round arch windows. Two hexagonal staircase towers are built outside the tower near the northeast and southeast windows. The small towers are completely self-supporting.

The upper octagonal tower was built in the 19th Century in a Gothic style. However, some of the ornamentation is based on early 15th Century designs and stands out against the 16th Century lower octagonal tower.

Main entrance.

Details of the Last Judgement.

Over the main portal is one of the most complete Late Gothic sculpture collections in Europe. This collection represents the Christian belief in a Last Judgment where the wicked will be separated from the righteous. This sculpture shows the wicked naked on the right, while the righteous stand clothed in white on the left. In the center is Justice, with Saints and the wise and foolish virgins around her. In the center stands Michael the Archangel with a raised sword.

The wicked are naked.

Righteous stand clothed in white.

Michael the Archangel


The sculptures of the Last Judgement were the only statues in the Münster to survive the iconoclasm of the Protestant Reformation.

The 47 large free-standing statues are replicas (the originals are in the Bern History Museum), and the 170 smaller figures are all original. The Last Judgement was the work of one sculptor, Erhard Küng from Stadtlohn, Westphalia, which gives the collection a unity of design. The Justice sculpture is the only one that was done by another artist. It is signed by Daniel Heintz, who was the master builder after 1571. The rest of the statues were carved some time between 1460 and 1501, most likely between 1460 and 1480.

The trumeau to each side and between the doors has thirteen life-size figures. The middle figure and the two figures on each side of the door are raised by about half their height above the other figures. The figures on the left of the door represent the five Foolish Virgins while the ones on the right are the Wise Virgins. Below the outer two Wise Virgins and the two Foolish Virgins, two faces peer out of the wall on each side. On the wise side, they represent the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon. On the foolish side, they represent Zephaniah and maybe Isaiah.

In the center, between the two doors, is Justice flanked by two angels. Below Justice and the angels is a scroll commemorating the laying of the cornerstone in 1421.

Five Foolish Virgins

Five Wise Virgins

Queen of Sheba and King Solomon

Zephaniah and maybe Isaiah

Scroll commemorating the laying of the cornerstone in 1421.

The archivolt features three rows of figures. The inner two rows are attached to the wall and lay at an angle which follows the curve of the portal. The outer, third row features statues that stand upright on individual platforms. The inner row contains five angels with the instruments of the Passion. The second row contains eight Old Testament prophets. The outer row is Jesus, Mary and the Apostles, including John the Baptist and Paul, but not Judas Iscariot.

The tympanum is 4.75 m (15.6 ft) wide at the base. It is made up of thirteen individual sections. The bottom row is made up of three plates located about 10 cm (3.9 in) above the lintel. It is 38 cm (15 in) deep and about 50–60 cm (20–24 in) high. On the left side of the tympanum, it contains two rows of figures and on the right, three. The lower figures are nearly fully three-dimensional, while the upper figures are mostly carved in relief, with only the head and shoulders projecting out of the stone. Above these three plates, the remaining ten plates are arraigned in three rows. The bottom row is made up of four plates which rest on a 30–40 cm (12–16 in) high base. The plates are high relief carvings, each about 38 cm (15 in) deep and an average of about 1 m (3.3 ft) high. The figures were all carved with a rock pick. In the center of the tympanum is the Archangel Michael. He stands on his platform which is projected forward from the rest of the figures. The entire tympanum represents Heaven and Hell in the Last Judgment.

You are no longer allowed to take pictures of the inside of the church. More and more churches are doing this. Every church has a gift shop and they want you to purchase one of their photos. They were preparing for a concert.


The Münster was built by the city of Bern as a symbol of the growing power of this city-state. The interior was therefore designed to awe the citizens as well as foreign visitors. The central nave was built in a lacy Gothic style with enormous stained glass windows and numerous altars in side chapels. The Gothic style allowed a taller central nave and larger windows than had been possible before, creating an impressive and (for the time) light and airy structure.

Many altars were financed by local families, creating a wealth of art and sculpture in the cathedral. However, in 1528 all 43 side altars were removed during the iconoclasm of the Protestant Reformation. Nearly all the interior paintings and decorations were removed and dumped in the neighboring Münsterplattform. The empty chapels were filled with extra pews, creating three naves. Since that time, the interior of the cathedral has remained relatively empty and austere.

The stained glass windows of the cathedral are considered the most valuable in Switzerland. The some of the windows date from 1441–1450. The right hand windows were damaged during a hailstorm in 1520 and replaced in 1868. Many of the windows include both heraldic symbols and religious images placed side by side. The windows are 2.92 m (9 ft 7 in) wide in the middle and 13.15 m (43 ft 2 in) high. Most of the windows have twenty lower panels, each 61 cm (24 in) by 92 cm (36 in), and twenty upper panels, each 61 cm (24 in) by 105 cm (41 in).

There are seven windows in the choir of the Münster. Some of the panels have been moved or replaced since the windows were originally built. Facing the choir, from left to right, the current windows are: Hostienmühle, Three Kings, Bible scenes, Passion/Ten thousand martyrs, Christ, Stephanus and Coat of Arms windows. Only portions of the Passion and Ten thousand martyrs windows remain, so they were combined into a single window. The Christ window was added to replace the damaged Ten thousand martyrs window. The Stephanus and Coat of Arms windows replaced earlier, unknown windows.

The Hostienmühle window was built between 1448–1453 and was funded by the city of Bern. The Three Kings window was built between 1447 and 1455 for Rudolf von Ringoltingen, possibly in Constance or the Oberrhein region. The Bible scenes window was originally supposed to be just of the young Christ, but was changed after 1447. It was built between 1448 and 1451 and was funded by three members of the Gesellschaft zum Mittellöwen. The Passion window was built between 1438 and 1441. Only 21 panels of the original window remain. It was built for the city through the Schultheiß by Hans Acker in Ulm. The Ten thousand martyrs window was originally supposed to be of the Resurrection of Jesus, but that was changed after 1447. It was built between 1447 and 1449 and was funded by donations from the citizens of Bern. It was built by Master Painter Bernhart and glazier Niklaus Magerfritz in Bern. The Ten thousand martyrs window was replaced in 1868 by the Christ window. The Stephanus window replaced an earlier window in 1868. The theme of the original window is unknown but it was built in 1449–1451 for Kaspar von Scharnachtal, probably by Niklaus Magerfritz in Bern. The Coat of Arms window was built in 1820–30 to replace an earlier, unknown window.

Dance of Death stained glass window.

Images of death claiming people from all walks of life were very common during the Black Plague in Europe.

One very interesting window is the "Dance of Death" window located near the choir on the south side nave. The first Dance of Death plays originated during the Black Death of the 14th Century and remained popular during the 14th and 15th Century. By 1425, the figures from the plays appeared in the cemetery of the Church of the Holy Innocents in Paris. The figures on the Münster window were done by Niklaus Manuel between 1516 and 1519. The stained glass window in the Cathedral is an excellent example of this theme. The window shows death, in the form of a skeleton, claiming people from every station in life. The Dance of Death served to remind the viewer that death will happen to everyone regardless of station or wealth.

The Choir, in the eastern side of the Cathedral between the nave and the sanctuary, houses the first Renaissance Choir Stalls in Switzerland. There are 21 seats on the Evangelisten side and 27 on the Epistel side. The stalls are richly carved with both animals and images of daily life.

In 1517, the town council hired Bernhard Burenfind from Solothurn to build the stalls. He began selecting and cutting oak wood for the stalls. However, for an unknown reason, he did not complete the work and was not asked to complete any other projects in Bern. On September 26, 1522, Bern tried to hire a master carpenter from Schaffhausen for 30 pounds. In the same year, Niklaus Manuel and three others were sent to Geneva to examine the choir stalls there. On December 5, 1522, Jacob Ruess and Heini Seewagen from Schaffhausen were hired to complete the work on the stalls. They were paid much more than the 30 pounds that Bern had wanted to pay. They were paid 300 pounds in 1522, followed by 150 in the next year, 300 in 1524. They finished the work in 1525. The original stalls were repaired and renovated in 1863–64 and the carvings were repaired in 1897.

The Cathedral Organ sits above the main entrance.

The first organ in the Cathedral was built nearly 200 years after construction was completed. The first great organ was built in 1726–30. The town council voted to have the organ built on June 5, 1726. They hired Gottlieb Leuw from Bremgarten in September 1726. By January 1730 his work was nearly finished and the town began searching for an organist. While the main organ was finished in 1730, the ornamentation and finish work continued until 1736. This first organ had 38 organ stops, with a breast and back work as well as an echo work with pedals.

In 1746, the council decided that the organ needed to be rebuilt. On September 16, 1748, they reached an agreement with Victor Ferdinard Bossart to do so. On June 1, 1752, they signed a contract with Johann August Nahl to do the exterior decoration on the new organ. The rebuilt organ had 43 organ stops, and was built in a late-baroque style. It was renovated in 1827.

When the new organ balcony and screen were built in 1845–48 above the western entrance by Beat Rudolf von Sinner, the organ was completely rebuilt and was known as the second organ. The organ builder Friedrich Haas from Winterthur increased the number of stops to 55. The number of consoles was changed to three.

The third organ was built in 1903/04 by Friedrich Groll from Lucerne. While the exterior remained virtually untouched, the interior was rebuilt. Pneumatic tubes, slider chests and a mechanical action were added to the organ. However, the sound produced by this new organ was unpleasant. The interior of the organ was completely rebuilt in 1930.

The 1930 organ is the current one in the cathedral. It was restored in 1998–1999. The organ is currently used for a series of concerts throughout the year.

Clock tower or Zytglogge


"When it was built around 1218–20, the Zytglogge served as the gate tower of Bern's western fortifications. These were erected after the city's first westward expansion following its de facto independence from the Empire. At that time, the Zytglogge was a squat building of only 16 meters (52 ft) in height. When the rapid growth of the city and the further expansion of the fortifications (up to the Käfigturm) relegated the tower to second-line status at around 1270–75, it was heightened by 7 meters (23 ft) to overlook the surrounding houses.

Only after the city's western defenses were extended again in 1344–46 up to the now-destroyed Christoffelturm, the Zytglogge was converted to a women's prison, notably housing Pfaffendirnen – "priests' whores", women convicted of sexual relations with clerics. At this time, the Zytglogge also received its first slanted roof.

In the great fire of 1405, the tower burnt out completely. It suffered severe structural damage that required thorough repairs, which were not complete until after the last restoration in 1983. The prison cells were abandoned and a clock was first installed above the gate in the early 15th century, probably including a simple astronomical clock and musical mechanism. This clock, together with the great bell cast in 1405, gave the Zytglogge its name, which in Bernese German means "time bell".

In the late 15th century, the Zytglogge and the other Bernese gate towers were extended and decorated after the Burgundian Romantic fashion. The Zytglogge received a new lantern (including the metal bellman visible today), four decorative corner towerlets, heraldic decorations and probably its stair tower. The astronomical clock was extended to its current state. In 1527–30, the clockwork was completely rebuilt by Kaspar Brunner, and the gateway was overarched to provide a secure foundation for the heavy machinery.

The Zytglogge's exterior was repainted by Gotthard Ringgli and Kaspar Haldenstein in 1607–10, who introduced the large clock faces that now dominate the east and west façades of the tower.

The corner towerlets were removed again some time before 1603. In 1770–71, the Zytglogge was renovated by Niklaus Hebler and Ludwig Emanuel Zehnder, who refurbished the structure in order to suit the tastes of the late Baroque, giving the tower its contemporary outline.

Both façades were again repainted in the Rococo style by Rudolf von Steiger in 1890. The idealizing historicism of the design came to be disliked in the 20th century, and a 1929 competition produced the façade designs visible today: on the west façade, Victor Surbek's fresco "Beginning of Time" and on the east façade, a reconstruction of the 1770 design by Kurt Indermühle. In 1981–83, the Zytglogge was thoroughly renovated again and generally restored to its 1770 appearance. In the advent season and from Easter until the end of October, it is illuminated after dusk.

The Bernese German Zytglogge translates to Zeitglocke in Standard German and to time bell in English; 'Glocke' means 'bell' in German, as in the related term 'glockenspiel'. A "time bell" was one of the earliest public timekeeping devices, consisting of a clockwork connected to a hammer that rang a small bell at the full hour. Such a device was installed in the Wendelstein in Bern – the tower of the Leutkirche church which the Münster later replaced – in 1383 at the latest; it alerted the bell-ringer to ring the tower bells.

The name of Zytglogge was first recorded in 1413. Previously, the tower was referred to as the kebie ("cage", i.e., prison) and after its post-1405 reconstruction, the nüwer turm ("new tower").

The Zytglogge has an overall height of 54.5 metres (179 ft), and a height of 24 meters (79 ft) up to the roof-edge. Its rectangular floor plan measures 11.2 by 10.75 metres (36.7 by 35.3 ft). The wall strengths vary widely, ranging from 260 centimeters (100 in) in the west, where the tower formed part of the city walls, to 65 centimeters (26 in) in the east.

The outward appearance of the Zytglogge is determined by the 1770 renovation. Only the late Gothic cornice below the roof and the stair tower are visible artifacts of the tower's earlier history.

The main body of the tower is divided into the two-story plinth, whose exterior is made of alpine limestone, and the three-story tower shaft sheathed in sandstone. The shaft's seemingly massive corner blocks are decorative fixtures held in place by visible iron hooks. Below the roof, the cornice spans around the still-visible bases of the former corner towerlets. The two-story attic is covered by the sweeping, red-tiled, late Gothic spire, in which two spire lights are set to the West and East. They are crowned by ornamental urns with pine cone knobs reconstructed in 1983 from 18th-century drawings.

From atop the spire, the wooden pinnacle, copper-sheathed since 1930, rises an additional 15 meters (49 ft) into the skies, crowned with a gilded knob and a weather vane displaying a cut-out coat of arms of Bern.

The dial of the Zytglogge's astronomical clock is built in the form of an astrolabe. It is backed by a stereographically projected planisphere divided into three zones: the black night sky, the deep blue zone of dawn and the light blue day sky. The skies are crisscrossed with the golden lines of the horizon, dawn, the tropics and the temporal hours, which divide the time of daylight into twelve hours whose length varies with the time of year.

Around the planisphere moves the rete, a web-like metal cutout representing the zodiac, which also features a Julian calendar dial. Above the rete, a display indicates the day of the week. Because leap days are not supported by the clockwork, the calendar hand has to be reset manually each leap year on February 29th. A moon dial circles the inner ring of the zodiac, displaying the moon phase. The principal hand of the clock indicates the time of day on the outer ring of 24 golden Roman numerals, which run twice from I to XII. It features two suns, the smaller one indicating the date on the rete's calendar dial. The larger one circles the zodiac at one revolution per year and also rotates across the planisphere once per day. Its crossing of the horizon and dawn lines twice per day allows the timing of sunrise, dawn, dusk and sunset.

The painted frieze above the astronomical clock shows five deities from classical antiquity, each representing both a day of the week and a planet in their order according to Ptolemaic cosmology. From left to right, they are: Saturn with sickle and club for Saturday, Jupiter with thunderbolts for Thursday, Mars with sword and shield for Tuesday, Venus with Cupid for Friday and Mercury with staff and bag for Wednesday. The painting of the entire clock area was refurbished in 1983. Only the matte areas on the clock face are from the earlier coat of paint."

This is the first time I actually took the tour inside the Zytglogge. Climbed 130 steps to reach the top of the tower. I'm not sure what was more difficult- climbing up those steep steps or trying to get down the twisting steep steps. I would say both ways were difficult in sections.

The Clock Tower with its famous clock is undoubtedly one of the most important tourist attractions of the city of Berne.

As the city expanded around 1220 from the bend of the river Aare up to the region of today’s Clock Tower a West gate tower was built as part of a defense wall. The town grew very fast and expanded to the West, so that the West gate tower lost more and more its purpose of defense. First transformed into a prison it was immediately re-erected, after the fire of 1405, to host a big bell and a mechanical clock. Thus, it was called the Clock Tower ever since.

Though it has undergone many changes, the Clock Tower kept its purpose of announcing the hours to Bern’s people until today. Its time was classified as the main time in the state of Bern. The course of all other clocks was based on the one in the Clock Tower.

The astronomical clock was first mentioned in the city accounts of 1444 when it had to be repainted. It therefore dates from the early 15th century and presumably belonged to the first original movement (soon after 1405).

In 1530 Brunner took over the astronomical clock without making any major changes. We have a good idea of what it looked like in those days thanks to a contemporary painting, which is still extant. A astrolabe type of dial is well recognized. The twelve somewhat arbitrarily arranged signs of the Zodiac can be clearly seen. Sun and moon orbit the zodiac, while a hand indicates the hours on the outer edge of the dial (numbered in reverse order from I-XII). The lines on the planisphere indicate a southern stereographic projection. In the corners of the painted border, symbolic faces indicate the four winds. Above the dial the Roman deities Venus, Mars and Jupiter are painted on the wall together with their attributes. The musical oriel is depicted on the right side of the dial.

Between 1527 and 1530 Casper Brunner built the monumental and artistic mechanisms, which controls the whole installation: the astronomical dial, both the large dials on the East and West fa’des, the hourly chime and the automata. I dare say that it is one of the greatest clock mechanisms ever built and it has basically survived until the present day. The clock frame consists of a wrought-iron, late Gothic supported construction, measuring 2.50 m in length, 1.70 m in depth and approx. 2.20 m in height. The whole mechanism contains 5 different gears: The main train with a pendulum (originally foliot), the quarter chime, the hour chime and two automata gears.

The five gears are driven by stone weights with a power reserve of about 28 hours. Therefore, the weights with a total weightiness of 450 kg have to be pulled up every day.

Crank to turn the weights. All the men in the group had to take a turn cranking the wheel.

The astronomical clock was first mentioned in the city accounts of 1444 when it had to be repainted. It therefore dates from the early 15th century and presumably belonged to the first original movement (soon after 1405). In 1530, Brunner took over the astronomical clock without making any major changes.

The twelve somewhat arbitrarily arranged signs of the Zodiac can be clearly seen. Sun and moon orbit the zodiac, while a hand indicates the hours on the outer edge of the dial (numbered in reverse order from I-XII). The lines on the planisphere indicate a southern stereographic projection. In the corners of the painted border, symbolic faces indicate the four winds. Above the dial the Roman deities Venus, Mars and Jupiter are painted on the wall together with their attributes. The musical oriel is depicted on the right side of the dial.

The rooster crows three times. The hour glass turns signifying you can never get time back.

This moves the bears

Gear to controls the rooster, the jester and one other which I have forgotten.

This changes the days of the week.

Original wood. When they extended the roof, they didn't extend the chimney. Smoke came out of the chimney and blackened the wood. It has preserved it, though.

Bear Park

What is a day in Bern without a visit to the Bear Park? This is one of my favorite places to spend time when I am in Bern.

Since 2009, the bears of Bern also have a modern 6,000 square meters park at their disposal - which they can reach via a tunnel.

Since 1513, bears have been at home in Bern; until 1857 in the town itself, then in the bear pit, and since 2009 in the new and spacious Bear Park.

The bears love going up and down the hill as well as to swim in the water.

The site on the banks of the Aare stretches from the former bear pit opposite the Old Town to the river. Thanks to a lift, the entire facility is now wheelchair-friendly. The “Bear Pit”, which still exists and has been listed as a federal cultural asset of national significance, remains at the bears' disposal.

Today, I actually saw all three bears. Sometimes they like to hide.


Copyright © 2017. BeyondArizona. All Rights Reserved.

BeyondArizona is a registered trademark of Deborah Kade.